Society and social movements



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Society and social movements

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Society and social movements

9 People and organizations results for Society and social movements

Bigelow, Jane

  • Person
  • 1928 -

Jane Bigelow (1928 - ) was a politician and the mayor of London, Ontario from 1972 to 1978. She also served as controller on the city's Board of Control before and after her term as mayor.
She was born in Toronto in 1928 and educated at St. Clement's Girl's School and the University of Toronto where she completed a B.A. in Physical and Health Education in 1950. She trained as a teacher and taught in high schools in Ottawa, Hamilton and Edmonton.
After settling in London in 1965 with her husband and two children, she took courses at the University of Western Ontario towards a B.A. and began a master's program in urban studies. She participated in the founding of the Central London Association and the Urban League, a group that was designed to coordinate the efforts of local citizens' groups. She also became involved in the London Council of Women, serving on the committee which helped save the Broughdale Lands. Bigelow was active in local and provincial NDP organizations, serving as vice-president of the provincial party from 1968 to 1972. She organized several conventions for the party and was responsible for the Handbook for Municipal Politicians, published in 1968.
In 1969, she was elected to the Board of Control and when she was re-elected in 1971, she received the most votes out of all the controllers making her the deputy mayor. When mayor Fred Gosnell resigned for health reasons in February 1972 she took over as acting mayor. In March 1972, Bigelow was elected mayor by council and in 1973 she was elected mayor by the public in a general election. She was re-elected in 1974 and 1976 but was defeated in the 1978 election by Al Gleeson, an instructor at Fanshawe College.
As mayor, Jane Bigelow advocated for accessible day care, better public transit with special fares for senior citizens, neighbourhood improvement schemes, funding for the arts, more parks and better city planning. She was criticized for being uninterested in development. During her mayoralty, London received a triple A rating from two independent American organizations. In her last years of office, she became interested in financial planning and tax reform for municipalities. She was actively involved in several joint municipal-provincial organizations and represented London's interests at both higher levels of government. In 1974, she was invited with six other Canadian mayors to visit Israel and in 1976, she was a representative to the Habitat Conference and the Conference of Mayors held in Milan.
Some of the major issues during her term as mayor included the Talbot Square development, the London Regional Art gallery, the restoration of the Middlesex Court House and the possibility of siting a prison in London.
She was elected to the Board of Control in 1980 but did not run in 1982. She was later employed by Employment and Immigration Canada. She was honoured with several awards and recognitions for her public service.

Bucke, Richard Maurice

  • Person
  • 1837-1902

One of seven children, Richard Maurice Bucke was born on March 18, 1837 at Methwold, Norfolk, England to parents Horatio Walpole Bucke and Clarissa Andrews Bucke. His parents emigrated to Canada in his first year and settled in London, Ontario. At 16 Bucke left home and moved to the United States, where he worked in several locations as a labourer. In 1856 Bucke travelled to the Sierra Nevada where he joined forces with the prospectors Allen and Hosea Grosh. Hosea died within the year of blood poisoning, and in 1857 Bucke and Allen Grosh were lost in a snowstorm. They went 5 days and 4 nights without food or fire, until they arrived at a small mining camp. Grosh died of exhaustion and exposure, while Bucke recovered, despite losing one foot and part of the other to severe frostbite.

Upon his return to Canada in 1858, Bucke enrolled at McGill University to study medicine. He graduated in 1862 with the distinction of being the gold medalist of his year and winning a prize for his thesis, "The Correlation of Vital and Physical Forces." After spending time in Europe for post-graduate studies he returned to Sarnia to take over his late brother's medical practice. He was summoned to California in 1864 to give evidence in the Comstock Lode Litigation before returning to Canada in 1865 where he married Jessie Maria Gurd and settled down to practice medicine in Sarnia for the following ten years. Bucke and his wife had 8 children: Clare Georgina (1866 - 1867), Maurice Andrews (1868 - 1899), Jessie Clare (1870 - 1943), William Augustus (1873 - 1933), Edward Pardee (1875 - 1913), Ina Matilda (1877 - 1968), Harold Langmuir (1879 - 1951) and Robert Walpole (1881 - 1923). His first born, Clare Georgina, died at 10 months old, and his eldest son, Maurice Andrews, was killed in an accident in 1899.

Bucke was appointed Medical Superintendent at the new mental hospital in Hamilton in 1876, and after a year he was transferred to the Ontario Hospital in London where he served for 25 years. Bucke read Walt Whitman's "Leaves of Grass" in 1867 and claimed it to be one of the most important events of his life. He travelled to New Jersey to meet Whitman in 1877 which marked the beginning of a long, close friendship between the two men. Upon Whitman's death in 1892, Bucke became one of his literary executors and was a pall bearer at his funeral.

Bucke was one of the first of his time to depart from orthodox therapeutics at the Asylum. By 1882 he had abolished the medicinal use of alcohol in the Asylum and by 1883 he had discontinued the use of physical restraints and initiated an open-door policy. He also pioneered many surgical "cures" for lunacy, including gynaecological surgery.

Bucke was an active writer, and his many noted works include several psychiatric papers, "Walt Whitman, a biography of the man," "Man's Moral Nature," and "Cosmic Consciousness," the last of which has been held in high esteem for many years and reprinted many times since its publication.

Bucke was one of the founders of the University of Western Ontario's Medical School and in 1882 was appointed Professor of Nervous and Mental Diseases, as well as elected Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. Bucke delivered the opening academic lecture of the year at McGill University by request of the medical faculty in 1891. He became President of the Psychological Section of the British Medical Association in 1897, and the following year he was elected President of the American Medico-Psychological Association.

Bucke died suddenly after slipping on the veranda of his home and striking his head on February 19, 1902. He is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery, London, Ontario.

Council for Social Service

  • Corporate body
  • 1915-1969

The Council for Social Service (1915-1969) was created initially to promote the moral and social well-being of people through legislation, action, cooperation, and education. Then went on to study social problems and to promote the formation of a Christian public opinion upon social problems. In 1969, the CCS was disbanded and was succeeded by Social Action Unit (National and World Program) (1967-1974) and then Social Action Ministries (1974-1990).

Fanny Gross

  • Person
  • 1827-1900

Fanny Rankin Appleton was born in Epping, UK in 1827. She was the daughter of Mary Ann Rankin and Joseph Appleton. When Joseph died, Fanny’s mother married George Conrad Gross around 1840. When Fanny’s mother died a few years later, George returned home to Leer, Germany with Fanny, her sister and brother, and his two daughters.

Sometime between the death of her mother and 1850, Fanny and George were married. They moved to New York where George ran a grocery store. After the death of a baby boy, the couple moved to Whitby to be closer to Fanny’s sister, Emma and George’s daughter, Caroline. Fanny and George enjoyed a privileged life in Whitby and were well-connected in the community. George ran a hardware store in downtown Whitby and built a castle-like residence nearby. According to local lore, Fanny was known as the 'Duchess of Whitby.'

Fanny and George had 10 children. She died at Whitby in 1900 and is buried in Union Cemetery, Oshawa.

Fort William (St. Joseph's) Indian Residential School

  • Corporate body
  • 1894-1969

Fort William (St. Joseph's) Indian Residential School was originally founded as a school and orphanage on the property of the Roman Catholic Mission in Fort William in 1870 under the direction of the Daughters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. In 1885, the Sisters of St. Joseph’s of Toronto took over and then once again by the Sisters of St. Joseph’s of Peterborough. The orphanage was made up of two separate buildings. One of the buildings was used as the schoolhouse and had two rooms that could hold between 23 and 72 students. At the time, the convent/school was a mixture of both white and Indigenous orphans as well as white boarders. On April 10, 1895, a fire broke out in the convent bake oven and destroyed the structures. No one was killed during the fire but the Sisters were forced to find other buildings to use while the school was reconstructed. The Sisters decided to use the First Nations Council House as a chapel and schoolhouse until reconstruction of the school could take place. The school formally applied with the Department of Indian Affairs to become an Indian Residential School in 1895 after the fire in order to increase funding to cover the costs of the rebuild. However, the new designation did not actually increase the school’s funding. By the end of November of 1895 the convent, orphanage, and church were rebuilt. In 1907, the Grand Trunk Railway bought the land that the school was on necessitating a new building. Construction of the new school took place in 1908 on the corner of Franklin and Arthur in Fort William. The school’s new site occupied 3.5 acres of land and had a total cost of $30,500. The new location officially opened on February 14, 1909. With the new location, the school operated as an Indian Industrial Day School as well as the orphanage, and boarding school for non-Indigenous children that it had already done. The school did not continue operating as an Indian Residential School again until 1936.

The school averaged 84 students per year between 1943 and 1952 and faced frequent outbreaks of illness and multiple reports of abuse. The school had a policy of not turning children away, which resulted in constant overcrowding problems. The school stopped formally operating as a residential school in 1964 but still operated as a residence for students attending local day schools. The school closed completely in 1966.

The school has various names throughout its history including: Fort William Residential School, St. Joseph’s Boarding School, St. Joseph’s Indian Residential School, St. Joseph’s Indian Boarding School, St. Joseph’s Indian Industrial School, and St. Joseph’s Orphanage.

Leigh, Carrie

  • Person
  • 1963-

Carrie Leigh’s is a Canadian actress, model, photographer, and publisher. As an actress she is known for known for A Fine Mess (1986), Beverly Hills Cop II (1987) and Blood Relations (1988). Leigh dated Hugh Hefner and lived at the Playboy mansion for a time.
From 2007-2010 Carrie Leigh published and edited NUDE magazine, focused on high quality, artistic photos of nude women, featuring both her own photography and artists’ work. In contrast to the pornographic work in later years of Playboy and magazines like Hustler, Leigh wanted to focus on fine art erotica that one could display on the coffee table.

London and Area Council of Women

  • Corporate body
  • 1894 -

The London and Area Council of Women was founded on February 14, 1894 as the Local Council of Women, London. In 1990, a motion was passed by the executive to change the name of the council from the London Council of Women (LCW) to the London and Area Council of Women (LACW). The objective of the council is, “To draw together the women of London in greater unity of thought, sympathy and purpose to further the application of the Golden Rule to society, for the development, improvement and happiness of mankind.” The logo of the council is a bow bearing the Golden Rule, “Do unto others as you would that they do unto you.”
The LACW is comprised of individual members and members of its federated organizations which include women's groups, service clubs and volunteer organizations. The president of each federated organization is named a vice-president of the LACW executive and has a single vote. The executive of the LACW also includes a president, an executive vice-president and elected and appointed officers who hold positions such as treasurer, secretary, registrar and standing committee officers.
The LACW is part of a hierarchical organization of Councils of Women, answering to the Provincial Council of Women of Ontario (PCWO) and the National Council of Women of Canada (NCWC). The NCWC is a member of the International Council of Women (ICW).
Throughout its history, the LACW has held regular meetings and organized events to encourage political engagement, educate the public on various issues of importance to women, raise funds and promote culture and heritage. In addition to this, the LACW has been active in lobbying the municipal, provincial and federal governments. As a member of the PCWO and the NCWC, the LACW proposed resolutions which were debated, voted on and formalized into briefs which were submitted annually to the provincial and federal governments.

Western's Caucus on Women's Issues

  • Corporate body
  • 1980 -

Western's Caucus on Women's Issues was formed in 1980 to promote and safeguard the interests of women at the University of Western Ontario and its affiliates. Its objectives are: (1) to cultivate a sense of community among women at the university, (2) to encourage the integration of findings from feminist research into curricula at UWO and its affiliates and (3) to promote a work environment that facilitates the full professional development of all women employed at UWO and its affiliates.
The Caucus held lecture series, sponsored a women's studies essay award and hosted a brown bag lunch series to foster discussion. The group also produced several documentaries about the experiences of women and minority groups in post-secondary institutions including Breaking the Trust (1986), The Chilly Climate (1991), Backlash to Change (1996) and Voices of Diversity (2008).
In addition to this, the Caucus mobilized its membership around issues of importance to women, forming committees to address particular issues and to ensure that women would have meaningful input into initiatives undertaken by the university. The Caucus gave recommendations on the university's sexual harassment policy and race relations policy, submitted proposals for affirmative action/ employment equity and gave input during the university's strategic planning process.
The Women's Studies Committee of the Caucus on Women's Issues raised awareness about courses focused on women and ensured that library holdings supported women's studies. The committee compiled the “Directory of Women's Studies Courses” which, in the absence of a formal women's studies program, identified courses which fell into the realm of women's studies - courses which previously had not been identified as such. In 1981, courses identified as “women's studies” were offered for the first time.
The Caucus actively promoted employment equity (previously known as affirmative action) at Western, submitting in 1982 a brief on the status of women that contained a proposal for affirmative action. In 1986 Western received the Ontario government's employment equity award and in response to this, Constance Backhouse released the report, “Women faculty at UWO: reflections on the employment equity award.” Constance Backhouse researched the history of women at Western extensively in writing this report and conducted additional research on women at Western for the U.W.O. law archives and in preparation for celebrations marking 100 years of women at Western.