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The Argus
Collection · 1966 - 1969

The Argus is the student newspaper of Lakehead University.

This collection consists of scans of the first three years of the Argus, from September 1966 to March 1969.

Fonds · 1911 - 1981

Records of the Canadan Suomalainen Järjestö [Finnish Organization of Canada], Vapaus Publishing Company (responsible for publishing Vapaus and Liekki and other publications), Suomalais-Canadalaisen Amatoori Urheiluliiton [Finnish-Canadian Amateur Sports Federation], co-operatives, and more.

Includes meeting minutes, reports, financial statements, and correspondence related to the operations and administration of these organizations. Also includes a variety of document and pamphlets related to socialism, communism, and the peace movement in Canada and worldwide.

The Canadan Suomalainen Järjestö (CSJ; Finnish Organization of Canada) is the oldest nationwide Finnish cultural organization in Canada. For over a century the CSJ has been one of the main organizations for Finnish immigrants in Canada with left-wing sympathies and, in particular, those with close ties to the Communist Party of Canada. Through the early to mid 1920s, Finnish-Canadians furnished over half the membership of the Communist Party and some, like A.T. Hill (born Armas Topias Mäkinen), became leading figures in the Party. Beyond support for leftist political causes, the cooperative and labour union movements, many local CSJ branches in both rural and urban centres established halls – some 70 of which were built over the years in communities across Canada – that hosted a range of social and cultural activities including dances, theatre, athletics, music, and lectures. The CSJ is also known for its publishing activities, notably the Vapaus (Liberty) newspaper.

The CSJ underwent several changes in its formative years related to both national and international developments. Founded in October 1911 as the Canadan Suomalainen Sosialisti Järjestö (CSSJ; Finnish Socialist Organization of Canada), the organization served as the Finnish-language affiliate of the Canadian Socialist Federation which soon after transformed into the Social Democratic Party of Canada (SDP). By 1914, the CSSJ had grown to 64 local branches and boasted a majority of the SDP membership with over 3,000 members. One year later the organization added two more local branches but membership had dropped to 1,867 members thanks, in part, to a more restrictive atmosphere due to Canada’s involvement in the First World War and an organizational split that saw the expulsion or resignation of supporters of the Industrial Workers of the World from the CSSJ.

In September 1918, the Canadian federal government passed Order-in-Council PC 2381 and PC 2384 which listed Finnish, along with Russian and Ukrainian, as ”enemy languages” and outlawed the CSSJ along with thirteen other organizations. The CSSJ successfully appealed the ban in December 1918 but dropped ”Socialist” from its name. The organization operated under the name Canadan Suomalainen Järjestö until December 1919. The SDP, however, did not recover from the outlawing of its foreign-language sections, leaving the CSJ without a political home. Stepping into this organizational vacuum was the One Big Union of Canada (OBU), founded in June 1919. The CSJ briefly threw its support behind this new labour union initiative, functioning as an independent ”propaganda organization of the OBU” until internal debates surrounding the structure of the Lumber Workers Industrial Union affiliate and the OBU decision not to join to the Moscow-headquartered Comintern led to its withdrawal shortly thereafter. In 1924, CSSJ activists including A.T. Hill helped to found the Lumber Workers Industrial Union of Canada (LWIUC).

Inspired by the Bolshevik Revolution that toppled the Tsarist Russian Empire in November 1917, and following the founding of the Communist Party of Canada (CPC) as an underground organization in May 1921, the CSSJ rapidly became an integral part of the nascent Communist movement in Canada. Reflecting this change, in 1922 the organization was renamed the Canadan Työläispuolueen Suomalainen Sosialistilärjestö (FS/WPC; Finnish Socialist Section of the Workers’ Party of Canada) – the Workers’ Party of Canada being the legal front organization of the CPC. In 1923, Finnish-Canadian Communists formed a separate cultural organization, the Canadan Suomalainen Järjestö (CSJ; Finnish Organization of Canada Inc.), to serve as a kind of ”holding company” ensuring that the organization’s considerable properties and assets would be safe from confiscation by the government or capture from rival left-wing groups. With the legalization of the CPC in 1924, the FS/WPC became the Canadan Kommunistipuolueen Suomalainen Järjestö (FS/CP; Finnish section of the Communist Party of Canada). Between 1922 and 1925, membership in the CSJ through its various transitions also doubled as membership in the Communist Party. This arrangement ended in 1925 when the FS/CP was disbanded following the ”bolshevization” directives of the Comintern. These directives demanded that separate ethnic organizations in North America be dissolved in favour of more disciplined and centralized party cells. It was hoped that this reorganization would help attract new members outside of the various Finnish, Ukrainian, and Jewish ethnic enclaves that had furnished the bulk of the CPC dues paying membership in Canada. From this point onwards, the CSJ officially functioned as a cultural organization but maintained a close, albeit sometimes strained, association with the CPC. The 1930s represent the peak of the CSJ size and influence, occuring during the Third Period and Popular Front eras of the international Communist movement. During this period CSJ union organizers assisted in the creation of the Lumber and Sawmill Workers Union – a unit of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of the American Federation of Labor, successor to the LWIUC – and the reemergence of the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers in Sudbury and Kirkland Lake. CSJ activists also helped to recruit volunteers for the International Brigades that fought against nationalist and fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Finally, in the 1930s some 3,000 CSJ members or sympathizers embarked on the journey from Canada to the Soviet Union to help in the efforts to industrialize the Karelian Autonomous Soviet. Hundreds of Finns in Karelia would later perish in Stalin’s purges.

Despite the CSJ’s active support for the Canadian war effort, the organization was still deemed to be a threat to national security by the federal government and again outlawed in 1940. All FOC properties were seized and closed. The Suomalais Canadalaisten Demokraattien Liitto (SCDL; Finnish-Canadian Democratic League) served as the FOC’s main legal surrogate until the organization was legalized in 1943. The rapid decline of the FOC following this period is apparent from the fact that of the 75 locals in operation in 1936, only 36 remained active in 1950.

Further reading:
Edward W. Laine (edited by Auvo Kostianen), A Century of Strife: The Finnish Organization of Canada, 1901-2001 (Turku: Migration Institute of Finland), 2016.
Arja Pilli, The Finnish-Language Press in Canada, 1901-1939: A Study of Ethnic Journalism (Turku: Institute of Migration), 1982.
William Eklund, Builders of Canada: History of the Finnish Organization of Canada, 1911-1971 (Toronto: Finnish Organization of Canada), 1987.

Northern Woman Journal
Fonds · 1973 - 1997

Northern Woman Journal began as a newsletter covering feminist issues for readers in Northwestern Ontario, and developed into a journal featuring political stories at the location, provincial, national, and international level, fiction and artwork, personal stories, letters and opinions, and information on local events.

The Journal's creation was closely linked to the community of feminists including Margaret Phillips and the management of the Northern Woman Bookstore.

The records include:
A complete run of the Journal from 1973 to 1995
Administrative records, including meeting minutes, correspondence, and accounting
Editorial records, including graphics and submitted pieces
Other related publications

CA ON00402 NTK · Collection · 1976, 1983-2018.

The collection consists of a series of the Northern Times newspaper, for 1976 and from 1983 to 2018. Some issues are missing.

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CA ON00402 TP · Collection · 1974-1978

This collection includes all the issues Timmins Porcupine News published between November 4, 1974 and June 28, 1978.

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Collection Daily Press
CA ON00402 DP · Collection · 1972, 1989, 1999, 2002-2008, 2012

The collection contains mostly special issues, some relating to the 60th (1972) and 75th (1987) anniversaries of the City of Timmins, while others celebrate various special events. It includes the collections: Hardrock & Heartwood (1999) and Milestones (2012). Hardrock & Heartwood was a weekly document published in 1999 to mark the arrival of the twenty-first century while Milestones celebrated the first century of the City of Timmins.

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CA ON00402 ASJ · Collection · 1959, 1963

The collection contains a 1963 issue of the students’ journal Aurore and a photographic document autographed by Bishop Louis Levesque on October 22, 1959. The collection includes one box of textual and photographic documents.

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Frederick A. Hall fonds
CA ON00354 F 0169 · Fonds · ?

This fonds consists primarily of research notes taken from late-19th century Windsor and Essex County newspapers by Dr. Fred Hall. The information was assembled in preparation for his publication “Musical Life in Windsor: 1875-1901,” which appeared in Canada Music Book / Les cahiers Canadiens de musique spring summer 1973, vol. 6, pp. 110-124. The notes document individual performances or articles treating musical subjects and provide citations and/or photocopies of the source material. Dr. Hall’s personal arrangement (consisting of separate sections of a three-ring binder for concerts, musical clubs, instruments, instruction, music in churches, opera, history and criticism, and orchestras and bands) has been preserved. Also included are several prints of late-19th century images from Windsor/Detroit.

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The Illustrated News fonds
CA ON00354 F 0023 · Fonds · 15 October 1853

This fonds consists of a single leaf of newsprint (consisting of pages 207-210 of content) taken from the 15 October 1853 issue of The Illustrated News. Page 207 includes “Meeting of the Board of Brokers,” “New Publications,” “Monument to the Youthful Martyr of Chicago,” “The Street Musician,” and small untitled items. Pages 208-209 are a double-page spread containing engraved illustrations and short articles under the headings “Sketches in Mexico” – “Affairs in Mexico,” and “Sketches in New Hampshire” – “New Hampshire State Agricultural Fair” and “Manchester, N.H.” Page 210 includes “Life and Death,” “Do As You Would be Done By” by Lewis Earl, and “‘Country Jake’ in the Crystal Palace.”

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Canadan Uutiset fonds
Fonds · 1935 - 1975

The correspondence, receipts, newspaper clippings, and several articles of the Canadan Uutiset, a Finnish-language newspaper based in Thunder Bay.

CA ON00428 2022.01 · Item · 1873

Sir Hugh Allan, Sir John A Macdonald, Alexander Galt, and WP Howland as well as other prominent Canadians are all depicted on the left while a group of young men is depicted on the right. In the centre is Miss Canada who declares “"I am quite ready to hear your pretensions, young people. You say you object to Imperial distinctions being bestowed on Canadians, yet these are my great men. Can you replace them?".

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David Mills fonds
CA ON00353 AFC 272 · Fonds · 1755-1903; (added material 1910-1929)

This fonds contains case files, reports, doctrines, treaties, charters, bills, papers, certificates, journals, lectures, addresses and speeches, personal papers, correspondence and scrapbooks from the personal and professional life of David Mills: teacher, office holder, farmer, lawyer, politician, journalist, author and judge.

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Collection Hearst Tribune
CA ON00402 CHT · Collection · 1974-1979

The collection consists of The/La Hearst Tribune from 1974 to 1979.

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CA ON00402 NM · Collection · 1915-2005

The collection consists of an incomplete series of the newspaper The Northern Miner, on microfilm.

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CA ON00402 ÉSHHS · Collection · 1969-1970, 1999-2001

The collection includes an incomplete series of the newspaper L'Écho des Jeunes (October 1999 to May 2001). A document listing the evening courses offered by Hearst High School in 1969-1970, is also part of the collection.

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CA ON00402 CON · Collection · 1961-1963

This collection contains issues of the weekly Le Canadien de l’Ontario-Nord from 1961 and 1963. These publications provide us with information about several aspects of Northern Ontario’s realities at the time. The francophone situation as well as the economic, educational, political, religious, social and labor activities of the Kapuskasing-Hearst area are discussed.

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CA ON00402 TGZ · Collection · 1996-1999

Incomplete, this collection includes newspapers published between June 1996 and November 1999.

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Collection · [1980-1990]

Material covers Burlington’s history as documented by the Hamilton Spectator covering local news from the late 20th century. The collection consists of a mix of newspaper clippings and positive print images on (usually) glossy photo paper. There are occasionally cropping marks and measurements in grease pencil on some of these images when they were used for publication.

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Fonds Edna Lamarche Bergevin
CA ON00402 ELB · Fonds · 1979-1997

The collection contains newspaper clippings mostly from The Northland Post/The Cochrane Times and l’Ours Noir, two Cochrane newspapers. There are also a few clippings from other northern Ontario newspapers. They are related to members of the Lamarche and Bergevin families, as well as to elements of the history of the town of Cochrane. Some clippings have not been retained and others were returned to the donor. The archivist also added a note to some of the documents.

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