Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (Canada)
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Established in April 1971 by the amalgamation of the former Defence Research Establishment Toronto and the Canadian Forces Institute of Environmental Medicine, the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) was the national institute for human research and development in Canada. DCIEM was one of a group of several laboratories within the Department of National Defence providing the research and development required to support the broad operational commitments of the Canadian Forces. Its prime interest was to provide the military forces with the necessary information regarding personnel and equipment to ensure the effective utilization of the human in any man-machine system in operational use by the Canadian Forces. The Institute also conducted cooperative work with non-military departments of the government and with industry in projects that had applications to military requirements. Within the Department of National Defence, DCIEM was included in the conceptual planning stages of major military projects, thereby ensuring the inclusion of the human aspects in military systems.